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Clima damages by El Niņo and other causes

Water temperature statistics of the Maldives of 1985-2002

The monthly temperatures of the Maldives in the last 18 years from 1985 to the actual month in 2003, written as a JavaScript panorama

IndoEx - Global Dimming in the Indian Ocean

The international Clima Experiment in the Indian Ocean

all FAQ to El Ninjo and La Ninja.

Every lot of questions and answers to El Niņo and La Niņa.

World-map with Coral-bleaching (red Points)

All areas of the world, in which the coral-reefs were strongly damaged by El Niņo, are red marked on this world-map.

El Ninjo is back: The actual photos and maps!

The left graphic-link and this text-link to the National Climatic Data Center lead to the two biggest environmental sides in the internet.

Nature-forces, Saeverts home page about weather, El Ninjo and other nature-forces

El Niņo, the weather and other nature-forces: Homepage of Thomas Sävert.

Reef Base - Informationen ueber die riffe und das Korallensterben

ReefBase is the world's premier online information system on coral reefs, and provides information services to coral reef professionals involved in management, research, monitoring, conservation and education.

Reef Check - Help the coral-die to stop

Reef Check is an international program that works with communities, governments and businesses to scientifically monitor

a couple of comparative house-reefs ...

April 1996

May 1998

October 1998

May 2002

House-reef Machchafushi/Ari-Atoll May 1996

bleached house-reef on Maledives in May 1998 (every island in Indian Ocean)

House-reef Kuredu/Lhaviyani-Atoll October 2000

House-reef Kandholhudhoo in the North Ari-Atoll

The corals so ghostly looked without her Zooxanthellen her former beauty, they looked so hopeless already few months later and showed nothing more. Started but in May 2000 again to grow again many manners but only within at the earliest 2 to 5 years become they recovers largely again has. In the meantime, we must just be grateful for smaller details, what might not be really so difficult at the following photos of course too :-)

Here you can see many photos "before and after El Ninjo"   next side with the Photos

The corals die through what ...

Ocean World and Protect the maldives have many together: The protection of the coral-reefs and the environmental protection

Many peoples have seen Ocean World in one of the IMAX cinemas this lovely, but unfortunately realistic documentary movie about dying of the reefs in the Pacific (and not only there).

Statement from the program of the IMAX film Ocean World:

"Ocean World - fascination coral reef" shows not only the beauty and complexity of the coral-reefs, he also represents a plea for the rescue of these unique ecosystems. "With this movie we wanted to draw your attention to the catastrophe which threatens this irretrievable good of nature", emphasize director and producer Greg MacGillivray it was responsible already for IMAX-Highlights as "Everest" and "Dolphins".

Program of the IMAX cinema in Vienna, Austria
Program of the 9 IMAX cinemas in Germany
Program of the IMAX cinema in Lucerne. Switzerland

Ocean World deals with dying of the coral-reefs and shows 3 of the most important causes:
El Ninjo: Worldwide, temporary warming of the sea temperature around on an average 2 degrees centigrade (but he didn't call El Ninjo and the conscious year 1998, however, in the film).
Overfishing: You fish too strongly in a reef area the ecological balance of the reef caves in and it dies! If a member is missing in the food-chain, everyone dies!
Pollution: If coral-reefs are polluted with sediment by construction work on the resorts, by muddy rivers in the muzzle area (in the film by tree-felling stakes), or polluted by too few cleaned sewages in front of towns all corals die there.

El Ninjo is generally named as a main cause by coral bleaching on the Maldives, but the two other factors overfishing and sediments also have contributed to it for certain, special the fishing!

The food-chain on all coral islands consists mainly of 3 groups: The hunters (Sharks and other predatory fishes), the hunted (Swarm fish, reef perches, butterfly fish etc.) and the reef (Coral polyps, plankton, algas plants). If the reef dies, the little fish starve and through this also the great hunters. Are too many dish fish captured or too many coral fish for the aquaria (mostly with anesthetization poison!), not only the hunters but also the corals die, they without herbivores are overgrown and suffocated by algas soon there. An overfishing of the tall hunters strangely enough affects still more dramatically the sharks have already disappeared on many islands and reefs (no matter whether they are caught or only the dorsal fin is cut out!). On a reef without sharks there are almost no more reef fish in relatively short time and as before therefore the biological balance of the corals gets mixed up and this reef starts soon to die and, sometime, the tallest robber of the earth then dies out, too, the human!

IF SHARKS DIE, THE SEA DIES ! . . . . . . . STOPS THE SHARK-FINNING !

... and how had an effect El Niņo?

In April 1998, the first fright messages came from the Indian ocean and they took only divers from the beginning at once seriously. Most of the scientists took note of this catastrophe first, when it was no more to deny and some travel organizers still paraphrase the corals-dying very, very carefully today!

Fact is, colored corals didn't see most people before either because only the tiny coral polyp are usually colored and they get out a little of her lime scaffoldings only at night. Except for few ways all stone corals look gray, grey-green or grayish-brown and colored colors only can be seen after sundown or in light with a headlight. One meets colored soft corals very seldom, then soft only live corals only into depths below 8 meters when snorkeling .

Antler corals can grow up to 25 cm but, per annum they only are since there numbly and till now almost are only isolated small corals grown again on the Maldives to 100% since 1998. Desk corals have died completely up to depths of 18-20 m but in larger depths have some survived and pass the Chance so that is to look 10-15 years approximately she again, too. Whether, if I dare to have doubts for glazes of the polar ice and the to rise of the sea-level at the present the flat islands of the Maldive Islands however have so much time, still doesn't join in for the USA to this where at the climate peak in Kyoto at the pollutant reduction for economic reasons about 2001 any more!

Corals always live with an algae way, the Zooxanthella, into symbiosis. These algae give her color to the lime frameworks of the corals, because without her the lime framework would be white and the expression "Coral bleaching" therefore also arose to German "Korallenbleichung" first. The Zooxanthella build organic nutrients, called photosynthesis, with help of the solar energy of carbon dioxide and water. Because of her carbon dioxide consumption these algae give off lime and the corals use this one for her growth so that coral-reefs arise from the whole. Corals grow only at water temperatures between 20° and 30° centigrade. Less than 20° the coral polyp die and, if the water reaches about 30° Celsius, the Zooxanthella produce by oxygen too much for increased metabolism which gets fatal for the corals as of a certain set.

Before the corals are poisoned by too much oxygen, they repel the poison producing algae, they get too little oxygen only without these in turn and therefore they then definitely die. Within the first weeks they are still not quite dead but they get only white but they were thick already few weeks later with nastily brown algae over-waxes. Since this Coral bleaching has happened only in the upper water layers to about 20 m of depth mostly, of course it lasts for some years till coral polyp get off the depth up and establish himself there again. However, this can, if at all the again, last for decades at the antler and desk corals which grows only in the shallower water.

Still a so-called Maldives expert well wrote already 1 month in November 1998 after I had seen the Coral-dying with my own eyes in one of the highly reputed diving newspapers of Europe that the Coral-bleaching completely normally is and recurs all couple of years, that the corals become more beautiful than before afterward and that no panic-mongering shall be operated ... ! If I read such reports, I wonder as how naive then such tourism addicted "experts" regard us? Phrases, how: "1980 " and, after that, 1987, already, there was this Coral-dying but the corals became more beautifully than per before ...also white corals "aren't" dead ..."since most corals have died, there are much more fish because the food-competitor is missing", or what (I just once almost exclusively know that a food-chain is in such a way strong only as her weakest limb and butterfly fish live of coral polyp, however, too)! However, I saw no more fish, when into before for all the years in spring 2000. Only one is "more fish because of missing food-competition by the corals" this lie in my opinion.

I was on the Maldives Island Reethi Beach (Baa-atoll) in May 2000 and I moved tightly, that started to grow again many coral manners again. 2001, eleven months later, I was on the equal island again and I could also see, the corals grow again, and again one couple of month later, in October 200, I rediscovered already the first young table-coral at the house reef of Vilamendhoo in the northern part of the Ari-Atoll and next to many bald tourist island-reefs the house reef of Kandholhudhoo almost looked so colored and beautiful like before El Ninjo looked all islands! Compare my photos and form your own opinion!

Here you can see many photos "before and after El Ninjo"   next side with the Photos

Please, if you could not understand all the texts, excuse my low knowledge of English.

Š Gerhard Geyer - To use of my Sides, Scripts, Photos or Parts from this only with my written permission !


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